Apple Rootstocks

icon-appleApple scion variety growth on clonal rootstock compared to seedling


Roostock-Diagram 01 Roostock-Diagram 03 Roostock-Diagram 04 Roostock-Diagram 08 Roostock-Diagram 09 Roostock-Diagram 06 Roostock-Diagram 05 Roostock-Diagram 07 Roostock-Diagram 10 Roostock-Diagram 11 Roostock-Diagram 12 Roostock-Diagram 13 Roostock-Diagram 14 Roostock-Diagram 15 Roostock-Diagram 16 Roostock-Diagram 17


65


11


41


007


935


4210


202

M
27

M
9

Mark

M
26

MM
102

MM
106

Northern
Spy

M
793

Approx Tree Size 15 - 20% 25 - 30% 25 - 30% 30 - 35% 30 - 40% 35 - 40% 40 - 45% 15 - 20% 25 - 30% 35 - 40% 40 - 45% 50 - 55% 70% 75% 90%
Productivity Tick-Plus Tick-Plus Tick-Plus Tick-Plus Tick-Plus Tick-Plus Tick-Plus Tick-Plus Tick-Plus Tick-Plus Tick-Medium Tick-Medium Tick-Plus Tick-Medium Tick-Medium
Wooly Apple Aphid Resistance Tick Tick Tick-Plus Tick Cross Tick-Plus Tick-Plus Cross Cross Cross Cross Tick-Medium Tick Tick Tick
Phytophthora Resistance Tick-Plus Tick Tick Tick-Medium Tick Tick Tick Tick-Medium Tick Tick-Medium Cross Cross Cross Tick-Medium Tick
Fire Blight Resistance Tick-Plus Tick-Plus Tick-Double Tick Tick Tick-Double Tick-Double Cross Cross Cross Cross Cross Cross Cross Cross
Replant Disease Complex Resistance Tick-Medium Tick ? Tick Tick Tick Cross Cross Tick-Medium Cross Tick-Medium Cross Tick-Medium Tick
Fruit Size Compared to MM106 Small ? Similar ? Large Large Large Very
Small
Large Large Large Same Same Similar Small
Earliness of Fruit Maturity Compared to MM106 (days) ? -5/-7 -5/-7 ? -5/-7 0 0 0 -7 -7 -5/-7 0 0 0 +5
Cold Hardiness Tick-Double Tick Tick-Double ? Tick-Double Tick-Double Tick-Double Tick-Medium Tick-Medium Tick-Medium Tick-Medium Tick-Medium Tick-Medium Tick-Plus Tick-Plus
Suckering Tick-Medium Tick-Medium Tick-Medium Tick-Medium Tick-Medium Tick-Medium Tick-Medium Tick Tick-Medium Cross Tick-Medium Tick-Medium Tick-Medium Tick-Medium Tick-Medium
Burr Knots Tick Tick Tick Tick Tick Tick Tick Tick Tick-Medium Cross Tick-Medium Tick-Medium Tick-Medium Tick-Medium Tick-Medium

 

Key: Cross no / many   |   Tick-Medium medium / few   |   Tick yes / none  |  Tick-Plus  yes / high   |   Tick-Double yes / very high   | ? not known
* The Seedling Tree Height is standard. All of our trees are grown on rootstocks. The above diagram shows how tall a tree will grow on a rootstock compared to how tall a tree will grow on a seedling.

 

 

Background for main series of apple rootstocks availalble in New Zealand


Malling-Merton(MM) Rootstocks and Merton(M) Rootstocks

Many of the commercially used apple rootstocks today have derived from the collections of the East Malling Research Station and John Innis Institute in England. The rootstocks were collected and characterized by size from ancient rootstock populations used historically throughout Europe. Hybrids were also made from within these rootstocks to combine favorable attributes.

Michigan Apple Clone Series

A series of rootstocks were bred in Michigan and denoted with the abbreviation MAC and a number. Only MAC9 was released from this series and it was later renamed Mark after thermotherapy.

Geneva® (denoted as “G®”) rootstocks and Cornell-Geneva(CG) test selections:

In the 1960’s Cornell University, at the agricultural experimental station at Geneva, New York, initiated a breeding program for apple rootstocks with the essential objectives of early production, crown rot resistance, fire blight resistance, dwarfing but with a range of vigours, burr knot free, winter hardy, early fall hardening, good propagability, and clean shanked liners. They were also screening for a number of other important objectives, but these were regarded as non-essential. These objectives included woolly apple aphid resistance, good anchorage, late spring bud break, relatively few suckers, resistance to latent viruses and tomato ring spot virus, and a resistance to voles.

This project produced a number of commercially successful rootstocks before coming recognized of national and international significance and becoming jointly funded by the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS). At this time the additional selection characteristic of tolerance to apple replant disorder was added.

McGrath Nurseries, Ltd., became a co-licensee for these rootstocks in New Zealand in 1991 and has been extremely active in research, development and commercial release of these extremely promising pest and disease resistant rootstocks. We are extremely proud to have been a leading innovator in the release of these rootstocks in New Zealand.

The Geneva® rootstocks have given significant environmental gains in terms of reduced pesticide and heavy metal (copper) usage and have increased orchard yield efficiency.